According to the growth and development of tea trees, in autumn and winter, the aboveground part of tea trees will gradually stop growing and enter the dormant period, but the underground part of tea trees, on the contrary, is gradually active and enters the peak period of root activity throughout the year. At this time, the management of the tea garden is particularly important, and it will directly affect the output and quality of Chinese green tea in the following year, especially the guarantee of spring tea. Because the buds and leaves picked by spring tea depend on the nutrients accumulated in the autumn shoots of the previous year for growth, and the nutrient supply of the overwintering buds of the autumn shoots depends on the nutrients absorbed by the roots in the soil, and the nutrients in the soil must rely on artificial supplements. Therefore, farmers' friends must strengthen the management of tea gardens in autumn and winter.
Soil and Fertilizer Management
With the gradual drop in temperature, the above-ground part of tea trees gradually stops growing and enters the dormant period, while the underground part becomes active and enters the peak period of root activity. At this time, we should seize the opportunity to create good conditions for the growth of underground roots, and meet the soil environment and nutrients required by tea root activities.
First of all, the tea garden should be plowed reasonably. The function of plowing is mainly to loosen the soil, improve the soil condition, soil properties, and soil fertility status, facilitate the respiration and growth vitality of the root system, facilitate the absorption of nutrients by the root system, and promote the growth and development of the tea root system and the flow of the soil. Permeability. Plowing the soil can also play the role of insecticide and sterilization, turning the pest eggs, pupae, and harmful germs on the ground to the lower layer of the soil, suffocating them to death or turning the eggs, pupae, and germs in the lower layer of soil. On the soil surface, it was sunburned to death or frozen to death.
The principle of plowing is that sandy loam soil should be shallower, yellow loam soil and yellow-brown soil should be darker; areas near the roots of tea trees should be shallowly plowed, and places far away from the roots of tea trees should be plowed deeply. The depth of plowing is generally about 20 cm, and the second is fertilization. According to experiments conducted by the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences in tea farms, tea trees that are not fertilized in autumn and winter will have weaker growth potential, thin and small leaves, poor quality, and significantly reduced yields after the spring of the second year. In autumn and winter, tea plants with deep application of basal fertilizer show vigorous growth after spring, with thick and large leaves, good quality, and significantly improved yield (generally, the yield per mu is increased by more than 15%).
To fertilize tea gardens in autumn and winter, generally farmyard manure or soil mixed manure such as pond mud, human and animal manure should be the mainstay. Before application, harmless treatment should be carried out. Usually, farmyard manure or soil mixed manure should be piled with EMS bacterial liquid. It produces high temperatures and kills harmful bacteria. The composting time is 20-30 days. After harmless treatment, the application rate per mu is 2000-3000 kg. Of course, 100-150 kilograms of cake fertilizer, 10-15 kilograms of urea, 30 kilograms of superphosphate, and 20 kilograms of potassium sulfate can also be applied per mu.
The specific method of fertilization is to ditch the tea trees and apply them deeply. After application, they should be covered with soil to prevent the loss of fertilizer; for cascade tea gardens, the fertilizer should be applied on the inside of the cascade. Fertilization in autumn and winter should not exceed mid-to-late November at the latest. Late fertilization will affect fertilizer efficiency due to low temperature and weak root absorption capacity.
Tea tree pruning in winter is a technical link to achieve high-quality and high-yield spring tea.
The specific pruning method is that for tea gardens with strong growth and vigorous growth, only the protruding part of the canopy can be cut off to achieve a smooth canopy surface; for tea gardens with more delicate techniques and chicken feet, whose yield has begun to decline, should For deep pruning, you can cut off the branches 9-12 cm beyond the canopy surface, and cut off all the chicken feet branches, to sprout stout and tidy the next year; for old tea gardens where the tree is already weak and the production level is seriously reduced, it should be used Re-pruning, cutting off more than one-half of the height of the canopy, to promote the overall renewal of the tea tree canopy and restore production capacity as soon as possible. Winter pruning should generally be completed around mid-November.
The prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests in tea gardens are mainly based on the prevention and control of pests. Light pruning and edge pruning after closing the garden can play a certain role in preventing diseases and pests. However, some tea gardens are turned deeply every other year and pruned in the spring of the following year, which makes it difficult to achieve the effect of disease prevention and insect pest control. Therefore, the tea garden should do a good job in three aspects.
One is to clean up the tea garden. Weeds and litter are the places for pests to parasitize and overwinter. Timely clearing of the garden will help reduce the base of overwintering pests in tea gardens. Tea tree overwintering diseases and insects mainly include small green leafhoppers, tea loopers, moire leaf blight, wheel spot disease, scales, and mites. Therefore, after the garden is closed, the weeds on the ladder walls and the dead branches of the tea tree roots should be removed in time, and they should be burned in a concentrated manner. Light pruning should be done before clearing the garden so that the stubble and diseased leaves that have been cut can be treated together when the garden is cleared.
The second is manual capture. After the garden is closed and in early winter, the temperature may be relatively high, and the pests such as the lion moth, flat thorn moth, and tea caterpillar can continue to damage the tea trees. At this time, we should seize the opportunity to manually catch them at around 9 a.m. and after 3 p.m. on a sunny day. To reduce the harm.
Three is to close the park. Immediately after closing the garden, use a lime-sulfur mixture of 0.3-0.5 Baume for prevention and treatment. When spraying, spray the tea bushes up and down, inside and outside, on the front and back of the leaves, and spray the weeds on the ground and the branches in the canopy to improve the control effect. The closure of tea gardens generally ends before the end of November.